Insulin Delivery and Glucose Monitoring Methods for Diabetes Mellitus: Comparative Effectiveness
Background: Disease Burden of Diabetes Mellitus
Hyperglycemia resulting from diabetes mellitus, if untreated, can lead to long-term complications, including microvascular complications (e.g., retinopathy, nephropathy, and peripheral and autonomic neuropathy) and macrovascular complications (e.g., coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and peripheral arterial disease).
In pregnant women with pre-existing type 1 or type 2 diabetes, poor glycemic control is associated with poorer pregnancy outcomes. Hyperglycemia early in pregnancy is associated with fetal anomalies, and hyperglycemia later in pregnancy can be associated with macrosomia, delivery complications, stillbirth, neonatal hypoglycemia, and increased referral for C-section. Most pregnant women with pre-existing diabetes have type 1 diabetes.
- Golden SH, Brown T, Yeh HC, et al. Insulin Delivery and Glucose Monitoring Methods for Diabetes Mellitus: Comparative Effectiveness. Comparative Effectiveness Review No. 57 (Prepared by the Johns Hopkins University Evidence-based Practice Center under Contract No. 290-2007-10061-I). Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; July 2012. AHRQ Publication No. 12-EHC036-EF. Available at www.effectivehealthcare.ahrq.gov/glucose.cfm.
- American Diabetes Association. Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care 2010;33 Suppl 1:S62-9. PMID: 20042775.
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