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Nonpharmacologic Interventions for Treatment-Resistant Depression in Adults

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Background: Nonpharmacologic Interventions

Nonpharmacologic treatments for TRD have included electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and psychotherapy (only cognitive behavioral therapy or interpersonal therapy were studied for this report), but newer nonpharmacologic approaches have broadened potential options to include repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and vagus nerve stimulation (VNS). While rTMS is not approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as a treatment for TRD, off-label use for this purpose has been explored.