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Traumatic Brain Injury and Depression

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Background: Traumatic Brain Injury and Depression

Prevalence estimates of post-traumatic brain injury (post-TBI) depression range from 15–77% in the published literature. Depression associated with TBI can manifest soon after injury or well into the future, and reported rates are probably influenced by timing of screening and the tools used. There is evidence to suggest that TBI is associated with high rates of depression and of other axis I and axis II conditions described in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR). Furthermore, depression has been noted to be comorbid with other psychiatric conditions, including addiction or anxiety, in a number of studies. Post-TBI depression is thought to be a product of multiple biological factors. Some authors have inquired as to whether post-TBI depression is related to neuroanatomical or pathophysiological changes. Others suggest it is a response to psychosocial factors such as functional loss and inability to progress in rehabilitation.