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First-Generation Versus Second-Generation Antipsychotics in Adults: Comparative Effectiveness

Slide: 15 of 35

Summary of Study Characteristics Evaluated in the Comparative Effectiveness Review: PICOTS

Development of clinical studies of effectiveness of medical interventions is guided by the PICOTS (population, interventions, comparators, outcomes, timing, and setting) framework. These items are critical elements that will help to answer important clinical questions.

In the comparative effectiveness review, the clinical study literature was reviewed and summarized by using the PICOTS framework. The evidence concerning the outcomes identified here was examined in detail, and strength-of-evidence determinations were made only for these key outcomes.

Population: Adults 18–64 years of age with schizophrenia or related psychoses or with bipolar disorder

Interventions: Any currently available first-generation antipsychotic approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)

Comparators: Any currently available second-generation antipsychotic approved by the FDA

Outcomes: Core illness symptom severity, remission, relapse, and response rates; functional outcomes (e.g., employment, social functioning, legal system encounters); and utilization of the health care system (e.g., length of hospitalization because of mental illness, rates of emergency department visits)

Timing: All followup periods; the last time point was assessed if multiple points were provided

Setting: All settings, including hospital and outpatient