Off-Label Use of Atypical Antipsychotics: An Update
Modes of Results Reporting and Statistical Analysis in the Comparative Effectiveness Review (1 of 2)
95% Confidence Interval: The range of statistically valid results that will include the true population mean in 95 of 100 repeated experiments.
Mean Difference (MD): The difference between treatment and comparison group means. To determine a standardized mean difference (SMD), results from different scales are normalized to a common, “standardized” scale before calculating the mean difference. For MD and SMD, the result is statistically significant (p < 0.05) when the 95-percent confidence interval does not include 0.0, which is the point of no difference between groups.
Relative Risk (RR): The ratio of the rate (absolute risk, probability) of an event in the treatment group to the rate of the event in the comparison group. For RR, the result is statistically significant at p < 0.05 when the 95-percent confidence interval does not include 1.0, which is the point of equal risk for both groups.
- Higgins JPT, Green S, eds. Cochrane handbook for systematic reviews of interventions. Version 5.1.0. London: The Cochrane Collaboration; March 2011. Available at www.cochrane-handbook.org.
- Maglione M, Ruelaz Maher A, Hu J, et al. Off-Label Use of Atypical Antipsychotics: An Update. Comparative Effectiveness Review No. 43 (Prepared by the Southern California RAND Evidence-based Practice Center under Contract No. HHSA 290-2007-10062-I). Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; September 2011. AHRQ Publication No. 11(12)-EHC087-EF. Available at www.effectivehealthcare.ahrq.gov/offlabelantipsych.cfm.
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