Antinuclear Antibody, Rheumatoid Factor, and Cyclic-Citrullinated Peptide Testing for the Evaluation of Musculoskeletal Complaints in Pediatric Populations
Background: Musculoskeletal Pain
Musculoskeletal (MSK) pain affects muscles, bones, ligaments, tendons, and nerves. Childhood MSK pain is common, with published prevalence estimates ranging from 2 up to 50 percent. Children may have difficulty characterizing their symptoms, making assessment based on patient history and physical examination difficult. The presence of specific clinical characteristics such as morning stiffness, joint swelling, malar rash, and cytopenias may lead to a high suspicion of a pediatric rheumatic condition.
Keywords: musculoskeletal pain | children | clinical characteristics | stiffness | joint swelling | malar rash | cytopenia | pediatric rheumatic condition
- Wong KO, Bond K, Homik J, et al. Antinuclear Antibody, Rheumatoid Factor, and Cyclic-Citrullinated Peptide Tests for Evaluating Musculoskeletal Complaints in Children. Comparative Effectiveness Review No. 50 (Prepared by the University of Alberta Evidence-based Practice Center under Contract No. HHSA 290-2007-10021-I). Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; March 2012. AHRQ Publication No. 12-EHC015-EF. Available at www.effectivehealthcare.ahrq.gov/anatest.cfm.
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