Non-surgical Treatments for Urinary Incontinence in Adult Women: Diagnosis and Comparative Effectiveness
Risk Factors for UI
Known risk factors include age, pregnancy, vaginal delivery, caesarian section, menopause, hysterectomy, obesity, chronic cough, constipation, urinary tract infections, functional impairment, and cognitive impairment.
- Shamliyan T, Wyman J, Bliss DZ, et al. Prevention of urinary and fecal incontinence in adults. Evid Rep Technol Assess (Full Rep) 2007 Dec;(161):1-379. PMID: 18457475.
- Shamliyan T, Wyman J, Sainfort F, et al. Nonsurgical Treatments for Urinary Incontinence in Adult Women: Diagnosis and Comparative Effectiveness. Comparative Effectiveness Review No. 36 (Prepared by the Minnesota Evidence-based Practice Center under Contract No. 290-2007-10064-I). Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; April 2012. AHRQ Publication No. 11(12)-EHC074-EF. Available at www.effectivehealthcare.ahrq.gov/ui.cfm.
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