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Non-surgical Treatments for Urinary Incontinence in Adult Women: Diagnosis and Comparative Effectiveness

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Modes of Results Reporting and Statistical Analysis in the CER (1 of 2)

95% Confidence Interval: The range of statistically valid results that will include the true population mean in 95 of 100 repeated experiments.

Mean Difference (MD): The difference between treatment and comparison group means. To determine a standardized mean difference (SMD), results from different scales are normalized to a common, “standardized” scale before calculating the mean difference. For MD and SMD, the result is statistically significant (p < 0.05) when the 95 percent confidence interval does not include 0.0, which is the point of no difference between groups.

Odds Ratio (OR): The ratio of the odds of an event in the treatment group to the odds of the event in the comparison group. Odds are the number of individuals in the group having an event divided by the number of individuals not having the event (Odds = # with/# without; with + without = total # in the group). For OR, the result is statistically significant at p < 0.05 when the 95 percent confidence interval does not include 1.0, which is the point of equal odds for both groups.