Non-surgical Treatments for Urinary Incontinence in Adult Women: Diagnosis and Comparative Effectiveness
Summary of Study Characteristics Evaluated in the CER: The PICOTS Framework
Development of clinical studies of effectiveness of medical interventions is guided by the PICOTS (population, interventions, comparators, outcomes, timing, and setting) framework. These items are critical elements that will help to answer important clinical questions. In the CER, the clinical study literature was reviewed and summarized by using the PICOTS framework. The evidence concerning the outcomes identified here was examined in detail, and strength-of-evidence determinations were made only for these key outcomes.
Population: Adult and elderly women with symptoms of UI (for evaluation of diagnosis methods), or diagnosed with UI
Interventions: Nonpharmacological and pharmacological
Comparators: Other active interventions, placebo, or no active intervention
- Continence, frequency, severity, improvement, quality of life
- Adverse effects
Timing: typically 8 to 12 weeks for trials
Setting: Primary care and specialized clinics
Keywords: adverse effects | comparators | mixed incontinence | outcomes | PICOTS | population | quality of life | setting | severity | stress incontinence | timing | urge incontinence | urgency incontinence | uinary incontinence
- Shamliyan T, Wyman J, Sainfort F, et al. Nonsurgical Treatments for Urinary Incontinence in Adult Women: Diagnosis and Comparative Effectiveness. Comparative Effectiveness Review No. 36 (Prepared by the Minnesota Evidence-based Practice Center under Contract No. 290-2007-10064-I). Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; April 2012. AHRQ Publication No. 11(12)-EHC074-EF. Available at www.effectivehealthcare.ahrq.gov/ui.cfm.
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