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Non-surgical Treatments for Urinary Incontinence in Adult Women: Diagnosis and Comparative Effectiveness

Slide: 18 of 50

Summary of Study Characteristics Evaluated in the CER: The PICOTS Framework

Development of clinical studies of effectiveness of medical interventions is guided by the PICOTS (population, interventions, comparators, outcomes, timing, and setting) framework. These items are critical elements that will help to answer important clinical questions. In the CER, the clinical study literature was reviewed and summarized by using the PICOTS framework. The evidence concerning the outcomes identified here was examined in detail, and strength-of-evidence determinations were made only for these key outcomes.

Population: Adult and elderly women with symptoms of UI (for evaluation of diagnosis methods), or diagnosed with UI
Interventions: Nonpharmacological and pharmacological
Comparators: Other active interventions, placebo, or no active intervention

  • Continence, frequency, severity, improvement, quality of life
  • Adverse effects

Timing: typically 8 to 12 weeks for trials
Setting: Primary care and specialized clinics