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Nonpharmacologic Interventions for Treatment-Resistant Depression in Adults

Slide: 16 of 28

Comparisons Reported by the CER

The CER sought to evaluate the following comparators:

  • ECT vs. sham treatment
  • rTMS vs. sham treatment
  • VNS vs. sham treatment
  • Psychotherapy (cognitive behavioral therapy or interpersonal therapy) vs. control
  • Cognitive behavioral therapy vs. usual care
  • ECT vs. rTMS
  • ECT + rTMS vs. ECT
  • ECT vs. pharmacotherapy
  • Psychotherapy vs. pharmacotherapy

However, the literature search for some comparisons yielded no studies or insufficient evidence for analysis on several, including:

  • ECT vs. sham treatment
  • rTMS + pharmacotherapy versus pharmacotherapy alone or sham treatment alone
  • Psychotherapy vs. control
  • Psychotherapy vs. pharmacotherapy