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Clostridium difficile Infections: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention

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Overview: Results for Diagnostic Testing

Overall, literature was sparse and strength of evidence was generally low due to small sample sizes or lack of adequate controls. For diagnostic testing, direct comparisons of commercially available enzyme immunoassays for C. difficile toxins A and B did not find major differences in sensitivity or specificity. Limited evidence suggests that tests for genes related to the production of C. difficile toxins may be more sensitive than immunoassays for toxins A and B while the comparisons of these test specificities were inconsistent. It is not clear how differences in diagnostic test sensitivity and specificity will in turn affect clinical decisions and patient outcomes.