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Pain Management Interventions for Hip Fracture

Slide: 19 of 46

Summary of Study Characteristics Evaluated in the Effectiveness Review: PICOTS

Development of clinical studies of effectiveness of medical interventions is guided by the PICOTS (population, interventions, comparators, outcomes, timing, and setting) framework. These items are critical elements that will help to answer important clinical questions. In the CER, the clinical study literature was reviewed and summarized by using the PICOTS framework. The evidence concerning the outcomes identified here was examined in detail, and strength-of-evidence determinations were made only for these key outcomes. 

Population: Elderly patients experiencing pain due to non-pathological, low-impact injury hip fractures.
Interventions: Pain management methods, including systemic analgesia, neuraxial anesthesia, nerve blocks, traction, TENS, rehabilitation, complementary and alternative methods, and multimodal approaches.
Comparators: usual care (non-narcotic and opioid systemic analgesia) and/or other interventions.
Outcomes: pain intensity, mental status, 30-day mortality, and serious adverse events (stroke, myocardial infarction, renal failure).
Timing: acute care, within 30 days of fracture.
Setting: acute care.