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Pain Management Interventions for Hip Fracture

Slide: 17 of 46

Measuring Pain in Clinical Studies (2)

For the evidence presented here, pain measurements were evaluated as differences between the trial intervention and the comparator VAS means as measured after the treatment was administered. For example, the mean difference is equal to the test intervention VAS mean minus the control intervention VAS mean. The results are reported as centimeters (cm) difference.

For example, a mean difference of -1 expresses an additional 1 cm shift of the indicated point on the VAS toward “less pain,” achieved by the test intervention when compared with the control intervention. The difference in change from baseline is sometimes measured but is not included in the data analyzed in this report.